รหัสดีโอไอ 10.14456/jis.2016.18
Creator Wathanan Srinin
Title A comparative Study of Indian Kathakali and Thai Classical Masked Play
Publisher Faculty of International Studies, Prince of Songkla University
Publication Year 2016
Journal Title Journal of International Studies, Prince of Songkla University
Journal Vol. 6
Journal No. 2
Page no. 208-226
ISSN 2228-8864
Abstract This is a qualitative investigation to compare the classical Indian Kathakali dance and Thai Classical Masked Play (Thai Khon dance or Khon) in term of performance elements. The research results revealed that Thai khon dance has developed from Chuck Nak Dukdamban Play, swordplay, and grand shadow play. Chuck Nak Dukdamban Play has influences from the legend of Cambodia's Chuck Nak Dukdamban Play in the period of King Jayavarman II, Somdet Phra Ramathibodi II, Somdet Phra Maha Chakkraphat, and Somdet Phra Chao Prasat Thong who are kings of Ayutthaya, Thailand. It was showed that this Cambodian play took place in a coronation ceremony which is similar to Thailand's. The performers were divided into group of scrupulous men and devils. The ending of the performance was the victory of the scrupulous group. The style of fighting in Khon is adapted from swordplay, and the characteristic of the performance is adapted from grand shadow play. Before the practicing stage, performers from both countries, Thailand and India, have to pay homage to their teachers which are called "A-rung ngetum" for Indians and "Krob-kru" for Thais. The study found that Indian Kathakali and Khon are similar in terms of posture, and tow techniques known as Teab Learm and Ten sao. These techniques are done to strengthen performers' legs to carry other performers' weight to do an acrobatic pyramid. However, the position of performers' legs is different; Indians use half-sitting technique whereas Thais use a full one. Kathakali performers are exclusively males, whereas Khon performances included female cast members. That is the reason why the protagonists and the ones who act as human beings do not need to wear masks only make-up. For both performances, the performers use their hands to communicate which is called dancing art terminology, but performers in Kathakali move faster with Mudsa (interpretation of dramatic composition). In contrast, Khon is focused on neat movements according to patterns of Thai classical plays.In Kathakali, the characters are divided into two groups: dhama and unscrupulous ones. Khon's characters are put into four groups: Pra (main actor), Ngang (main actress), giants, and monkeys. The story used in Khon is a version of the Ramayana, but Kathakali's are Mahabharat and a plot that praises Shiva. Open-air theaters with lamps are the place for Kathakali, and also the small chairs are set as props. Khon existed both outside and inside theaters with props such as a royal chariot and stool. Musical instruments used in Kathakali consist of Janedai drums, Mattalam drums, flutes, and cymbals. For Khon, melody is produced by a Piphat ensemble which consisted of xylophones, gongs, flutes, drums, two-faced drums, and cymbals. Both kinds of dance can be performed in general occasions. India is the country of the highest growth of civilization, and culture has been spread according to the theory of culture spreading. This theory is based on several factors to propel culture (e.g., economy, society, and culture); therefore it is linked to cultural exchange. Thailand has been influenced by India in the aspect of Buddhism spreading and development strategies in politics, government administration, religion, tradition, and dancing arts. Knowledge from the book of Indian dancing art was adapted properly to be a pattern of Thai dancing art by developing some parts to suit Thai culture.
ดิจิตอลไฟล์ Digital File

บรรณานุกรม

Wathanan Srinin. (2016) A comparative Study of Indian Kathakali and Thai Classical Masked Play. Journal of International Studies, Prince of Songkla University, 6(2), 208-226.
Wathanan Srinin. "A comparative Study of Indian Kathakali and Thai Classical Masked Play". Journal of International Studies, Prince of Songkla University 6 (2016):208-226.
Wathanan Srinin. A comparative Study of Indian Kathakali and Thai Classical Masked Play. Faculty of International Studies, Prince of Songkla University:ม.ป.ท. 2016.