รหัสดีโอไอ 10.14457/TU.the.2019.748
Title Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development in Thailand
Creator Prachuab Peerapong
Contributor Bundit Limmeechokchai, Advisor
Publisher Thammasat University
Publication Year 2019
Keyword Sustainable energy development ,Feed-in tariffs ,Hybrid electricity generation ,Renewable energy ,EnergyPLAN
Abstract The objective of this study is to investigate the strategies of sustainable development in Thailand. The scope of economic improvement takes into not as it was the mechanical improvement viewpoints but too concerns the natural, social and financial sides. All nations around the world ought to scrutinize maintaining its welfare and assets to future eras through regarding maintainable improvement objectives that contain social advance, destitution lessening, opportunity and budgetary value, resilience-enhancing, financial development, and natural supportability. Feed-in duties are one of the effective methodologies in renewable vitality component advancement. Two of the foremost common strategies are renewable portfolio standard (RPS) measures and feed-in tariffs (FITs). RPS is a quota-based mechanism, under which electricity suppliers are committed to source a certain rate of renewable vitality, as right now was used in the U.K. and Texas in U.S.A., for example. FIT is a price-based mechanism development in which grid operators are obligated to purchase power produced from renewable vitality sources and renewable vitality makers get an ensured installment over installed periods beneath particular conditions depending on areas and innovations. The multi-purposes of this research are:1) to examine the feed-in tariffs of electricity generation from all renewable energies in many strategies for sustainable development, 2) to develop alternative electricity generation in remote areas in Thailand to increase power generation from renewable resources vitality (solar PV) and the integration of diesel-based electricity generation, and 3) to develop an alternative electricity generation in Thai’s energy system, along with available resources in the supply side (with multi-alternative scenarios). The methodology used in this thesis dissertation is as follows: 1) For incentives investment of electricity generation from renewable energies for electricity generation as biomass, solar, wind, and others, in Thailand, the government has applied the model of feed-in tariffs to replace the Adder scheme, which has been used in Thailand since 2007. The premium rates and support mechanisms duration will be differentiated by renewable energy types. The new incentive of feed-in tariffs will encourage investors in renewable-based power generation. In this study, three energy models are used. 1.) The RETscreen model was used to investigate the internal rate of return (IRR) in setting for the benchmark of the feed-in tariffs. 2.) For off-grid electricity development in outlying areas such as an isolated island, the HOMER energy model is used. 3.) For long-term energy development, the EnergyPLAN model energy model is used. The energy development in Thailand which used in this study, is based on the Power Development Plan, PDP 2015. The new PDP is intended to: 1.) reduce energy dependency of imported electricity from neighboring countries, 2.) reduce emission from fossil-based power plants, and 3.) reduce intense energy (primary energy consumption per GDP) by 30% in 2036, compared to the reference year 2010. The government aims to decline energy consumption and increase energy efficiency in all sectors. The Energy Efficiency Development Plan (EEP 2015) is targeted to decrease energy consumption by 51,700 ktoe per year in 2036 from business as usual (BAU) consumption and, consequently, reduce intense energy by 30 percent in 2036 from the base year 2010. The Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP 2015) was developed and targeted to promote renewable resources both for generation of electricity and heat production or thermal use. The target of final Renewable energy consumption under this plan is to increase renewable energy to 30 percent from the base year 2010. The renewable energy plan for electricity generation is ambitiously dominated by solar energy of 6,000 MW, followed by wind energy of 3,002 MW, biomass energy of 5,570 MW, and others, such as large hydropower, small hydropower, biogas, and waste. The total cumulative renewable energy for electricity generation in 2036 is expected to be 19,684 MW. The aim of this paper is to investigate the sustainability that is the integration of three main energy models, one of them called EnergyPLAN. The EnergyPLAN is a deterministic input-output energy modeling equipment. The method is a typical modeling sequence that can simulate an overall power system. Firstly, a reference model is created to ensure that the energy system is accurately simulated by EnergyPLAN. The result of the scenario is used to compare with the actual data. The hourly distribution of electricity consumption data is collected from national data. When the reference model is generated using the technical inputs, fuel consumption, fuel emission factors, fuels cost, and socio-economic analysis of the energy system may be followed by higher O&M costs. The carbon prices and carbon taxes are also used in a socio‐economic analysis. Hence alternative scenarios in relation to their technical performance and total annual operating costs would be created and compared. The outputs are the energy balance and annual production of oil, total fuel consumption and emissions, and the shares of renewable energy. In this dissertation, the energy efficiency model scenario and the development of renewable energy based on three main government plans would be assessed. This dissertation investigates the energy consumption in three main sectors. From the reference scenario (BAU), the final energy consumption in Thailand will be 190,724 ktoe in 2036 and it will emit total emissions of 598 million tons. The main energy consumption sectors are; the industrial sector (72,940 ktoe), the transport sector (61,252 ktoe), the power sector (36,885 ktoe), the residential sector (25,737 ktoe), and the commercial sector (15,224 ktoe). These scenarios are categorized as; 1) the business-as-usual scenario (BAU), 2) the baseline case scenario, and 3) the alternative scenarios. The BAU scenario is presumed on energy consumption in the base year of 2010. The base case scenario is based on usage of energy and energy management, and increasing renewable energy corresponding with the targets of the integration of the three government plans (PDP 2015, EPP 2015, AEDP 2015). In the base case scenario, electricity consumption is expected to decrease by 89,672 kWh, compared with the BAU scenario in 2036. Three alternative scenarios in the power sector are suggested as follows: 1) growing renewable power, 2) nuclear scenarios, and 3) power efficiency development within the electricity generation sector. The other two opportunity scenarios inside the business area are as follows: 1) increasing renewable electricity inside the industrial sector, and 2) electricity efficiency improvement in business sub-sectors consisting of in non-metal, food and drink, paper, chemicals, base metals, as well as in other different sub-sectors. The total strength intake is decreased by approximately 30 percent, relative to the reference scenario in 2036. Two alternative scenarios within the transport region are brought as follows: 1) growing bio-fuels within the planned strategy consistent under the AEDP 2015 plan that planning, Thailand will generate 14.00 million liters in line with target of biodiesel and 11.30 million liters in keeping and target of ethanol in 2036, and 2) energy efficiency development state of affairs inside the transportation strategies, inclusive of hybrid vehicles and electric motors scenarios, and electricity-efficiency in transportation.In the hybrid power objective, this strategy looks at the economic viability of battery-powered hybrid diesel / PV on an isolated island in Thailand for two indicators, the net present cost (NPC) and price of energy (COE). This target suggests that the hybrid electricity generation can reduce NPC and COE. The hybrid electricity configuration can also decline air pollution for viable strength generation on the agricultural island. The most reliable hybrid strength configuration composed of diesel/PV with battery gadget confirmed that this configuration may be as excessive as 41% of RE shares in total power production in this island. The power value or COE of this ultimate case on this look at may be generated at 12.75 Baht/kWh ($0.400/kWh), lower than the 13.16 Baht/kWh ($ 0.413/kWh) under the present diesel-most common effective conventional use.Finally, implementations of an aggregate of all eventualities are investigated with a view to reduce emissions, electricity dependency, and strength intensity. The socio-economic eventualities are investigated with carbon cost set at 320 Baht/ton ($10/ton) in 2010, 480 Baht/ton ($15/ton) in 2026, and 800 Baht/ton ($25/ton) in 2036. The results show that growing the renewable energy situation is certainly one of the techniques for sustainable improvement and carbon emissions in Thailand. Energy efficiency upgrades in the energy quarters, business offices and home quarter, industrial area, and transport zone can significantly decrease emissions and meet the goals of sustainable power improvement of Thailand.The socio-economic measurement is used to evaluate long-term strength making plans in Thailand in each the BAU and the proposed situations. Key socio-monetary indicators, such as energy intensity, emissions intensity, and machine cost intensity, are used to figure out each the bottom case and the expected alternative proposed situations. The outcomes display that Thailand has the capacity for sustainable development on account that Thailand has diverse renewable power generation which include biomass, biogas, and bioenergy, solar, wind, and hydropower. And the examine indicates that strength generated from a few renewable technology, with and without a feed-in tariff scheme, which include biomass technology, biogas technology, and organic waste technology, can generate strength with a suitable return on funding in terms of IRR, payback period, and net present values. The some technology which corresponding levelized cost (LCOE) is decrease than the government's benchmark of 2.44 Baht/kWh whilst generating strength without feed-in tariffs.
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บรรณานุกรม

Prachuab Peerapong และผู้แต่งคนอื่นๆ. (2019) Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development in Thailand. Thammasat University:ม.ป.ท.
Prachuab Peerapong และผู้แต่งคนอื่นๆ. 2019. Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development in Thailand. ม.ป.ท.:Thammasat University;
Prachuab Peerapong และผู้แต่งคนอื่นๆ. Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development in Thailand. ม.ป.ท.:Thammasat University, 2019. Print.